What Is an AGO Oil Product or Automatic Gas Oil? Finding Authentic AGO Petroleum Supply/Supplier

A recent survey conducted by this writer on the Internet for a quick, snap shot sense of the subject matter, immediately revealed that there’s a state of relatively scanty knowledge of, or information about, this particular refined petroleum product called the AGO, among international oil dealers and suppliers. In deed, in one rather remarkable instance involving a popular ‘Ask for Answers’ online discussion portal, one reader expressly posited the question, soliciting information from the readers as to what is/was ‘the meaning’ of the petroleum term AGO, among three other refined petroleum products, which he went on to list – DPK, PMS, JET A1. There was just one response – a response that has stood the same for 5 years since. Oddly enough, however, of the 4 oil products that the answerer named, the answerer was exactly accurate in the definition he proffered on three of those. But, on ONLY one of them, the AGO product, the answer given by the answerer was somewhat slightly off, as he gave the definition of the product as meaning ‘Automotive Gas & Oils.’

So, first, we start with this basic question: What is AGO Oil Product, or the Automotive Gas Oil?

What the AGO Oil Product Is

The term AGO, which specifically stands for the Automotive Gas Oil, is the name given to the fuel type that’s used by road vehicles (cars, trucks, buses, vans, and the like) that are powered by DIESEL engines. That is, in a word, it is the diesel vehicle engine fuel. In terms of how the fuel gets to be produced or manufactured, the fuel is the type that, in the distillation and processing of crude oil work, is obtained in the mid-boiling range of that process. Related fuels which are used for non-road applications including off-road diesel engines, such as the Industrial Gas Oils (IGOs), are obtained from the same ‘fraction’ of the crude oil barrel.

Technically speaking, the term Automotive Gas Oil (AGO) is the technical name used by the oil industry in describing this particular fuel. However, in terms of the ordinary consumers in the market, the term ‘automotive diesel fuel,’ or just plain ‘diesel,’ is the more commonly used and more widespread name that the ordinary consumer uses in describing this fuel. Petroleum products are usually grouped into THREE categories: the ‘light distillates’ (LPG, gasoline, naphtha), the ‘middle’ distillates (kerosene, diesel), and the ‘heavy’ distillates and residuum (heavy fuel oil, lubricating oils, wax, asphalt). This classification is based primarily on the way crude oil is distilled and separated into fractions (called distillates and residuum). Within the oil industry, the generic oil industry name that’s used to describe gasoils – which include both AGO and IGO – fall under the ‘Middle Distillates’ category, meaning those kinds of refined oil products whose ‘boiling range’ fall in the MIDDLE, that is, between those whose range fall in the higher levels or in the lower levels. (See the Chart below). As you can readily see in the Chart below, at a Boiling Range of between 520 to 650, the AGO falls right in the middle range of most categories of the refined oil products.

The Market & Primary Uses of the AGO oil Product Among Its Customers

AGO is used in two main types of vehicles: 1) the heavy-duty vehicles, such as trucks and buses, and 2) the light-duty vehicles, such as vans and passenger cars. In most countries, including the USA as well as the developing countries, the heavy-duty vehicles make up the bulk of the market for AGO. In a country such as Japan, there is a significant light-duty vehicle sector, but it is in Europe that the demand for AGO from this sector is highest, with more than one-third coming from the passenger cars and other light vehicles. Customer requirements between the two types of fuel usage differ to some extent. Diesel engines are widely used in heavy-duty vehicles. Such vehicles are frequently operated in fleets and are re-fuelled centrally with the fuel delivered directly from the supplier. In the light-duty vehicle sector, recent advances in engine design now also allow light-duty diesel engines to compete with gasoline engines in terms of the performance standards. Light-duty vehicles are generally re-fuelled through retail outlets. In any case, whether it is in the light-duty sector or in the heavy-duty sector, in both sectors the customer will generally be looking for the fuel that provides economy, power, reliability and environmental acceptability.

Use As Car Fuel

Diesel-powered vehicles, such as AGO-powered vehicles, generally have a better fuel economy than equivalent gasoline engines and produce less greenhouse gas emission. Their greater economy is due to the higher energy per-liter content of diesel fuel and the intrinsic efficiency of the diesel engine. True, petrodiesel’s higher density results in higher greenhouse gas emissions per liter compared to gasoline. However, the modern diesel-engine automobiles have a 20-40% better fuel economy, and this well offsets the higher per-liter emissions of greenhouse gases, while a diesel-powered vehicle emits 10-20 percent less greenhouse gas than comparable gasoline vehicles. Biodiesel-powered diesel engines offer substantially improved emission reductions compared to petrodiesel or gasoline-powered engines, while retaining most of the fuel economy advantages over conventional gasoline-powered automobiles.

How Crude Oil Fractions Are Processed Into Refined Oil Products, Including AGO and Other Products

How do we get to have refined petroleum products, of which a product like AGO is one? Put simply, it is out of the refinery processing (i.e., out of the ‘refining’) of crude oil that many other usable products – products that we generally refer to as refined or finished petroleum products – are produced. Meaning products such as gasoil, gasoline, kerosene, AGO, etc. The process of oil ‘refining’ or processing is a very complex one, and involves both chemical reactions and physical separations. The substance that’s called Crude Oil is composed of thousands of different ‘molecules,’ and according to chemical engineers and molecular experts, it would be nearly impossible to isolate every molecule that exists in crude oil and thereby make finished products from each molecule.

Consequently, the way chemists and engineers deal with this problem, is simply by them isolating the mixtures (also called ‘fractions’) of molecules according to what is known as the mixture’s “boiling point range.” For example, molecules for the gasoline product might boil within the ‘range’ of from 90 to 400 oF. While the range at which the home heating oil product’s molecular mixes could boil might be from 500 to 650 oF, and so on. For purposes of convenience and simplification, each mixture or fraction is assigned a specific name to identify it.

The following chart illustrates the ‘boiling range’ and name of the petroleum fractions.


Boiling Range,oF.

Butanes and lighter


Light straight run gasoline (LSR)

or light naphtha (LN)


Naphtha or heavy naphtha (HN)




Distillate or atmospheric gas oil (AGO)



650 +

Vacuum gas oil (VGO)


Vacuum Residua

1000 +

In sum, refined products are products that are produced by isolating the mixtures or fractions of molecules that come from the raw crude oil, and combining them, along with those from various refinery processing units. These fractions are ‘blended’ or mixed to satisfy specific properties that are important in allowing the refined product to perform in accordance with the specifications or requirements that are designed by or in an engine, in terms of ease in handling, reducing the undesirable emissions produced when the product is burned, etc


Simply stated, the KEY term and task here is finding an authentic AGO oil product supply or supplier. Or an AGO buyer, as the case may be. Why? This is simply because, today, in the international refined oil products trading market, specially in the so-called “secondary” market, probably the single most fundamental and most difficult common problem which legitimate dealers who seek to find reliable suppliers have, is often NOT so much finding a party who will claim heaven and earth that he/she has the AGO oil product to sell and can supply you the product. Or that he can buy one from you, as the case may be. BUT finding such a party who is actually AUTHENTIC & LEGITIMATE, and can actually DELIVER on the product.


A well-established reality and a given today, is that in world oil deals involving trading in the crude oil and refined petroleum products, specially in the so-called international “secondary” market, probably the single most fundamental and most difficult common problem which legitimate buyers frequently confront today, is the problem of the genuineness and authenticity of the supplier of product and his ability to deliver on the sales offer he presents. Refined petroleum products, such as AGO, D2, Mazut, Jet fuel, etc., are certainly not immune or exempt from such endemic problem that seems to plague the entire secondary market oil trade industry, but rather are, in deed, right in the middle of it.

It’s a problem whose central source can simply be summed up in one word – namely, that not unlike most persons or entities who claim via the Internet to be oil or petroleum products suppliers or “sellers,” most who claim to be suppliers of AGO, as well (or of similar refined oil products, such as the diesel gasoil or Russian D2, Mazut, Jet fuels, and the like), either provide NO proofs or evidence at all of that, or provide proofs or evidence that are often absolutely meaningless because they’re unverified and unverifiable. That is, for the serious or credible Internet petroleum buyer involved in the world oil deals and seriously intent on finding duly verifiable authentic AGO oil product supply or supplier, there are generally just NO such supply or suppliers of the product in the so-called “secondary” market.

Most such serious or genuine AGO buyers (or suppliers, as well, as the case may be) seeking to find equally genuine AGO suppliers (or sellers seeking buyers, when applicable) in the international secondary market, find that the problem is particularly acute and compounded by the fact that almost all “sellers” (or suppliers), or their brokers or intermediaries, that one meets on the Internet, are essentially unknown, unestablished dealers who lack any name, reputation or identity, or any known location on the planet, and lack any record or history of past performance in doing the business. In consequence, a serious AGO buyer, for example, is often being asked – and actually being realistically expected – to, in effect, merely take “the word” of some dubious, anonymous, unidentified and apparently unidentifiable, phantom “seller” or “supplier” for it, with no credible supporting evidence provided, and no verification or authentication whatsoever of the Internet seller’s offer or claims.

In sum, he’s being asked – and actually being expected – to risk, or, rather, to gamble away, his hard-earned mini-fortune of some hundreds of millions of dollars merely on such a “word.”! This, it should be added, is being expected of the buyer in a business environment and climate that is patently awash in fraud and a network of notorious scammers worldwide!


Clearly, then, if you are a real buyer of product seriously intent on finding authentic diesel AGO oil product supply or suppliers (or those of any similar refined oil products, such as the diesel gasoil or Russian D2, Mazut, Jet fuels, and the like) – meaning one that is duly verified and verifiable – probably the most critical, vital, even life-or-death task for you, is that you had better be sure to develop, in some way or manner, a skilled and effective strategy for finding, vetting, selecting out and authenticated suppliers that can provide you reliable steady supply of the product, and which will be scam-free, assured, and long-lasting.


Quite oddly enough, the answer to that question is actually not that complicated or complex. For our limited purposes here, suffice it simply to just say, that there is, in fact, such a methodology, tool and strategy for doing just that long in practical use in the industry. Long in practical use by knowledgeable, experienced and trained eyes and experts, and the successful traders, in the business. If you are, yourself, in fact a provable legitimate trader or authentic practitioner of the petroleum trade (assuming you are actually one) operating in the secondary market, and are truly serious about finding and securing authentic and reliable AGO oil product supply or supplier, or about finding and securing a buyer of equivalent caliber for the product, as the case may be, that’s actually readily within your reach. There’s just really one crucial proviso, only – namely, PROVIDING that you’re equipped with the requisite knowledge, skill, training, tool, methodology and practical experience, by which to undertake the whole process of doing so.

To be sure, true, in today’s world oil deals of the international secondary market, including sourcing for AGO product, which is largely an Internet-dominated world, and is for the most part prevalently awash in fake dealers and scammers, finding duly verified authentic petroleum or automotive gas oil product supply, suppliers and sellers of such caliber (or buyers, just as well), is not ordinary or commonplace. Nor is it at all an easy task to attain. It is, however, by no means impracticable, nor are such suppliers non-existent. Far, far from it! Quite to the contrary, such suppliers abound. It’s only that you just have to search around for such suppliers (or the legitimate buyers, as well, as the case may be) more diligently and skillfully and in the right places from the right sources, and know precisely how and where. That requires, unavoidably, supreme industry knowledge, skills set, training, know-how, connections, precious time expenditure, and experience.



Dollar General: Coming to a Community Near You!

They started out as a small, family owned retailer and gradually began to spread beyond its small town roots to towns across America. Along the way they changed the company’s name and quickly became known for offering low prices on a wide variety of items. Consumers flock to them and they are opening more stores annually in the US than any other retailer. I’m talking about Wal-Mart, right? No, Dollar General! Let’s take a closer look at another one of America’s retail success stories, the Dollar General Corporation.

J.L. Turner was a man toughened by life’s difficulties who founded what was later to become Dollar General with his son, Cal. At the age of 11, his father died and young J.L. soon found himself out of school and working to support his family. By the age of 17 he was married and operating a bridle shop with his wife. Later, he opened a country store but had to give that business up when prices dropped along with his profits. Soon thereafter he began to work for a dry goods wholesaler and, later, he bought and liquated bankrupt general stores during the Great Depression.

By 1939, J.L. and Cal decided to plunk down $5,000 each to start J.L Turner and Sons Wholesale store in Kentucky. In 1955 a new idea was born – the dollar store – and all the stores in their growing fold soon were converted and the Dollar General name was born. The company went public in 1968 and today it operates over 7550 stores in 30 states with more than 700 added in 2004 alone.

So, what kind of items can you find at Dollar General? A good variety! The store reminds me of another retailer, now defunct — Woolworth’s — in that they carry a little bit of everything. Do you need greeting cards? Excellent quality cards are sold for the unheard of low price of 2 for $1. Seasonal items such as coolers, plastic benches, folding stools, flags, sunscreen, mosquito repellent, wind chimes, and more are on prominent display. Food items as well as personal care products are carried, many of which have the Dollar General name and have a pre-stamped price right on the product. No, they do not have a complete line of any product, just the bestsellers. Still, the variety is good.

Because Dollar General was founded exclusively as a dollar store, many of their items are still priced at a dollar or less. Fortunately, for consumers, they are not restricted by the ‘one dollar’ limit and other items of greater value are sold too. Do you need sunflower bird seed? $2 per bag. Do you want DG candy? 4 for $1. On a recent visit I made to my nearby Dollar General I noticed many summer items on display outside the store with discount labels of 30% featured. Thus, the $20 molded plastic bench – available in white or hunter green – was now reduced to $14. Although the chain prices their items competitively, marked down items are easily found and quickly snapped up. So, if you see an item reduced and you want it, you better snag it right away!

Dollar General clearly states on their website that they serve lower and lower-middle income customers. Thus, one of their strong sellers is the Dollar General private label found on many products throughout the store. The quality of these items can differ, however. For example, I purchased the DG version of a York Peppermint Patty and can emphatically tell you that York has no fear of DG overtaking them in this category! If it is price you want, then get the DG patty. If it is taste, consistency, and quality you desire, then get the York Peppermint Patty. The store sells both items.

As widespread as the company stores are, you cannot find them in twenty states — yet. All states on the east coast are served except for those in New England. Stores can be found in the upper Midwest and as far west as Wisconsin then down to Texas and over to Arizona. All of the northwest and California, Utah, and Wyoming fall outside of their current service area. Still, the company is able to saturate the market with over 900 stores in Texas alone.

Many small towns that would probably not be served by a larger retailer usually have a Dollar General store present. Thus, the corporation’s commitment to small towns remains important to them, something many of the larger retailers have forgotten about over time.

Do I recommend Dollar General? Yes, because I shop there. No, I don’t purchase many of their store labeled items for reasons mentioned earlier. Still, I like to shop at a store that is small enough to locate much of what I need quickly and at a good price while allowing me to leave without feeling overwhelmed. Apparently, most of their customers feel the same way.

Creating Information Products – Which Format Should You Choose?

Information products usually fall into one of 5 different formats: text, audio, video, software or intangible/experiential products like consulting, seminars or coaching programs. In addition, these formats can be made into digital or physical products and often easily lend themselves to both.

Let’s start with text-based products. Some examples of text-based info products are articles, white papers, special reports, books, e-books, manuals, e-courses, binders or workbooks. These are generally the easiest to create and distribute because all you need is a word-processor for the more simple ones. As they get more complex, you’ll use graphics, PDF and page layout programs. For someone just starting out, a text-based e-course can be created very quickly and sent out via e-mail. Text products are by far the easiest to transmit over the Internet because they generally have the smallest file sizes. Of course, the file sizes increase as graphics are added, but the size is still insignificant compared to audio or bandwidth-hogging video.

Audio Products

These are usually audio CDs or downloadable digital files (generally MP3s). Technically speaking, audio is more complex to work with when compared to text products. With audio, you need to have a way to record (usually a digital recorder) and it’s important to get as clean of a recording as possible (this is easier said than done). Once it’s recorded, it needs to be edited with audio editing software. If you want your product to be really professional-sounding, you may want to consider adding some music and a voiceover intro and outro on the beginning and the end. When you have your recording sounding the way you want it, you then export it as a stereo file. If your product is going to be digital, you’ll take that master file and convert it to the format you want using a sound conversion utility. If you’ve decided to make an audio CD, you’ll have a bit more work to do. You’ll have to take your master file, cut it into “tracks”, export each track as a separate file and then use a CD burning program to assemble the individual tracks (files) and burn a master CD. This is the disc you’ll give to your duplicator. You’ll also need to create CD surface artwork and the art for whatever you’re packaging the CD in.

Video Products

The same basic process described above for audio also applies to video, except that you’ve now got a visual component. Video products are generally DVDs (for physical products) or if they are digital, they are usually converted to one of the following file formats: MP4, Quicktime, Windows Media or Flash. Be aware that working with video is much more demanding in many ways: it’s more expensive and generates far more data which means you’ll need a reasonably powerful computer and fast hard drives (7200rpm to do it properly). Another thing to be aware of when working with video is that, unlike audio, any edits you make will be visible on the video, which means it’s much more important to be able to deliver longer sections of content without making mistakes. You’ll also need to have the correct lighting and, if you want the video to be interesting, more than 1 camera so you can cut to different angles when editing. A minimum of 3 cameras is recommended for producing professional products – but that means paying 3 camera operators and then having 3 times as much video to edit later, which adds to your production cost (you’ll find a lot – if not most – of the expense when doing a video product is in the editing). Once you have your video edited the way you want, you’ll convert it to a downloadable format or get someone to “author” a DVD master, which means they’ll put a “splash” screen and a DVD menu on it and get it ready for duplication or manufacturing.


Unless you’re a programmer, you’ll probably be working with someone called a “coder” who will be responsible for implementing your ideas. There are people on Vworker and eLance that write software and will work on a project basis. One thing to make very clear in advance is who owns the work – and it would be a good idea to check with an attorney to see what kind of contracts and agreements you’ll need to have signed to protect yourself. Other ideas for software products could be a toolbar or an iPhone or Android app.

Intangible Products

Most people don’t think of a seminar or coaching program as an information product, but intangible products like these can still be marketed and sold – and they can easily be turned into a product by recording or packaging them into one of the above formats. Many people make money not only from putting on a live seminar but also from recording it and then selling the seminar as an info product from then on.

Manufacturing costs

For digital (downloadable) products, the costs are negligible, aside from the bandwidth charges, which can add up if your product is “streaming”. If it’s downloadable, then you’ll generally only have to pay for the initial download, since most people will play it back off their hard drives from then on. It shouldn’t be too much of an issue unless your product is very video-intensive, like a multi-day video training. If this is an issue, then hosting your video on Amazon’s S3 service can really reduce the expense. For physical products, there are the “hard” costs of the materials, such as printing, media (CDs/DVDs) and packaging, not to mention the shipping costs, which leads many infopreneurs to wonder if they shouldn’t make all of their products digital.

General Nutrition Center – The Health Authority

Have you ever passed by a store and accidentally peered in to find multitudes of large plastic bottles and cardboard cut-outs of buff men and women? Then you’ve probably had the General Nutrition Center (GNC) first look. The store that inspires you to be healthy, and maybe someday achieve that sculpted body you see on their cardboard models. No one would ever have guessed that they actually started off as a small shop which has been operating since 1935 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania managed by one David Shakarain.

Because of its staying power in the health supplements industry, GNC truly deserves the name General, in military terms, this connotes rank and respect. Their products range from over the counter medication, food supplements, vitamins, energy drinks and almost anything you can think of that is related to a person’s health and nutrition. Their first store has a reputation for being a relentless little health food store, it was damaged when the Ohio River overflowed but was rebuilt and continues to operate. Shakrain died in 1984 but has since then built an empire around the concept of health and nutrition. General Nutrition Center, as their name suggest has always been a leader in their industry, always being in the foreground of research and development and ensuring that their products are natural and safe is what made them an international brand. Since their beginning in 1935, they have opened around 6,000 plus stores in the United Stated alone and a few hundred more in 52 other countries. Also because of its popularity, the company eventually gave rights to drugstore.com to exclusively distribute the products online.

GNC products include all types of weight management aide, supplements, vitamins, amino acids, bodybuilding supplements, beauty products and herbal medications; the majority of these products are made by their own research teams while a few items coming from suppliers. The company ensures that they maintain the highest standards from researching and developing products up to packaging and distributing them. They ensure that all products go through 150 quality tests and follow the guidelines set by the Food and Drug Authority (FDA). All products are under their “money back” guarantee because it is GNC’s promise that all the ingredients in the labels are included in the products themselves. This ensures that any unsatisfied customer will be heard and it also gives a chance for the company to improve the quality of the items they sell.

They have proven their staying power not only in the heath supplements and fitness industry but as an international company as well. One thing that could be attributed to their continuous growth is their willingness to open up the corporate-owned business and allow franchisers to acquire stores. Truly, their reputation has lived up to their name, General Nutrition Center, an authority when it comes to health and fitness. If not for the countless stores around the globe, their name alone is priceless, even those who are not from the small town of Pittsburg trust GNC with all their health needs.